Tetanus Information

Learning about tetanus is important in your livestock operation.

From the pages of the official site of the Eze Bloodless Castrator. Information provided by CSL The Australian Vaccine Specialist

Cause

Tetanus occurs when a wound becomes infected with bacterial spores of Clostridium tetani. These spores germinate, multiply and produce a very powerful poison which affects the muscles. Some cases of tetanus occur from wounds that are so small they are not noticed.

Signs

An affected animal moves with a stiff-legged gait, often with the tail held out stiffly and the ears pricked. As the disease progresses the muscles become so rigid and stiff that the animal may fall and not be able to get up again. Convulsions may occur and death is caused by paralysis of the breathing muscles.

Epidemiology

Persistent spores can be found in the soil (it is more prevalent in cultivated than uncultivated soils) and organisms are routinely isolated from the feces of many domestic animals, including the dog and cat, and also from humans.

Immunity

Animals that have recovered from natural infection are not immune and still require vaccination for protection.

Treatment

Treatment is difficult, time consuming, very expensive and often unsuccessful. It involves the use of tetanus antitoxin to neutralize unbound circulating toxin, penicillin to prevent further growth of C/. tetani, muscle relaxants to relax the rigid muscles, and supportive therapy until the toxin is eliminated or destroyed.

Control

Vaccination is the only way to provide safe, effective long-term protection against tetanus. If an animal is showing signs of tetanus and or is injured, tetanus antitoxin should be administered to provide immediate but short-term (3 weeks) protection. At the same time a vaccination program should be commenced to develop long-lasting immunity. The tetanus vaccine may be administered intramuscularly on one side of the neck, while the tetanus antitoxin is injected subcutaneously on the other side of the neck. A separate syringe and needle should be used for each product. This will result in both immediate and long lasting protection.

Tetanus vaccine alone provides long-lasting protection but immunity takes 7-10 days to develop, and an injured animal may develop tetanus before protection is achieved. Tetanus antitoxin alone provides protection in 2-3 hours but it only lasts for 3 weeks and tetanus may develop after this protection has waned.

 

TETANUS: Questions and Answers

Why vaccinate?

Vaccination is the only way to provide long term protection against tetanus.

What about the use of Tetanus Antitoxin?

Tetanus antitoxin provides immediate protection but this protection only lasts for 3 weeks. Animals given tetanus antitoxin can develop tetanus once the levels of antitoxin have dropped below the protective level. It is extremely risky if owners are relying on the use of tetanus antitoxin given to the animals, after a wound, to protect them against tetanus, as some cases of tetanus occur from wounds which are so small they are not noticed.

Does the vaccine cause a reaction?

Like a number of vaccines, local swelling may occur at the site of the injection. Provided the injection has been carried out aseptically, any swelling should resolve spontaneously.
How is the vaccine administered?
The vaccine is injected intramuscularly. The most convenient site for injection is the center of the side of the neck.

What is the vaccination schedule?

It may vary slightly according to the type of vaccine you use. Generally you can vaccinate young calves at any age with a booster given in 21-28 days and once annually.